In the Premier League, there have been a few players that have gotten in trouble for betting on matches. One prime example is Joey Barton, who was suspended for 18 months (reduced to five on appeal) for betting on games while in the Premier League and EFL Championship.
In America, there have not been many suspensions for gambling in recent times. Both Paul Hornung and Alex Karras were suspended back in 1963 for bets they made during the 1959-1961 seasons. Colts QB Art Schlichter was suspended for the 1983 season for betting on games, and eventually, it ruined his career and his life. He has been in and out of jail and is currently incarcerated.
This is something that has plagued college sports much more often, most notably the 1951 CCNY basketball and 1979 Boston College point-shaving scandals. Players were paid to “shave points” (prevent a team from covering a published point spread for the game).